Turbochargers

A turbocharger is a standard in diesel engines and increasingly common solution in gasoline engines. Its aim is to increase the amount of air that is fed to the cylinders. Thanks to this it is possible, among others, to improve the mean motor rating.

How does a turbocharger operate?

A turbocharger is a sort of air compressor, which is driven by exhaust gases. The gases enter the turbine chamber while leaving the motor through an exhaust manifold.

There is an impeller in the chamber, which compresses the air powering the motor. Because of the fact that the compressed air contains a larger amount of oxygen in a unit, the presence of turbines creates favourable conditions for the combustion process. A greater amount of oxygen combined with more fuel allows to increase the mean motor rating, fuller combustion and to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted.

The most common causes of damages

A turbocharger is a very delicate and sensitive element of a motor that is exposed to damages. The most frequent causes of faults include, among others:

  • Undesired materials which get into the sucked air and exhaust gases,
  • Impurification of motor oil,
  • Too high temperature of exhaust gases,
  • Leak of the inlet system,
  • Prior engine tuning.

A damage of a turbocharger reflects adversely on operation of the motor. In fact, there is a drop of its mean rating which translates into much worse performance or late reaction of a turbine to pressing the accelerator.

What is more, a damage of a turbocharger may lead to:

  • Oil leakage from a turbocharger,
  • An increase in a smoke level,
  • Losses of oil in a motor.

3 reasons confirming a turbocharger to be a good solution

More and more often the use of turbochargers in motors is related to a number of advantages which it gives.

1. Safety
A turbocharged motor is able to generate several times higher mean rating than its non-charged up equivalent. This translates into faster responding to a driver's "commands".

2. Economics
In view of the fact that turbochargers process and use energy produced by gases leaving the motor, they increase the mean motor rating. What is more, its unit fuel consumption is lower as compared to standard units.

3. Ecology
Motors with turbochargers are distinguished by lower emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere.
A turbocharger, which provides much more air to a motor, makes the combustion in a cylinder chamber goes in a "cleaner" way. Thanks to this, up to 50% less gases such as nitric oxide or carbon dioxide are emitted to the atmosphere.

Installation of turbocharges

Before setting about working on installation of a turbocharger, it is necessary to remove the defect which causes damage of this element. Make sure also that the effects of previous failure have been eliminated as well.

Getting started

1. Check whether the hoses are undamaged and the air inlet system with a manifold is clean and without any undesired materials. Replace the filters.
2. Check whether the hoses which feed and drain the oil are clean. Verify also their passability. If it is necessary, clean them or just replace with new ones.
3. Check whether an oil feed hose is away from a source of heat. Make sure that a heat shield has not been damaged (mechanically or thermally).
4. Exchange oil and filter, bearing in mind the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer.
5. Check the condition of a motor priming system.
6. Get rid of damaged gaskets and use new ones during the assembly.
7. Verify the condition of an exhaust manifold and mounting screws for cracks and impurities. Clean them thoroughly or replace with new ones.

Assembly of a turbocharger

1. Attach the device to the manifold or the motor block - use the screw with appropriate parameters (resistant to high temperature) for this purpose.
2. Tighten all the screws and the nuts, bearing in mind the recommended tightening torque for the screws (such information can be found in the user's manual of a vehicle).
3. Connect the oil drain pipe and fill in the filler opening with clean motor oil. At the same time gradually rotate the impeller (manually).
4. Install the remaining components of the turbocharger one by one, avoiding tension on terminations and the device itself.
5. Rotate the crankshaft of the motor for 10-15 seconds - while the ignition is switched off. Continue until the oil flowing from the utility service hoses appears.
6. Start up the motor and leave it idling for about 30 seconds.
7. Stop the motor and check the condition of all connections - make sure that there are no leakages.

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